Imam Hussain (As) was born on Shaban 3rd, year 4th of Hejra (year 626 AD), in Medina. He was the second child of Imam Ali (As)* and holiness Fatima (As) the daughter of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.h.u). Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h)* was the person that named him Hussain (As). He loved him very much and has admired him on many occasions. He said about him…
“Hussain (As) is from me and I’m from Hussain (As)”
Imam Hussain Ibn Ali (As) spent six years of his childhood at the time of his holy grandfather and after that he lived for thirty years with his father Imam Ali(As). He actively participated in important events during Imam Ali’s(As) caliphate. After the martyrdom of his honorable father in year 40th of Hejra, leadership reached to Imam Hassan ibn Ali(As). Hussain ibn Ali(As) as a soldier was obedient to his Imam as the leader and accompanied his brother. After signed a peace treaty with Muawiya, with his brother and the rest of the household came to Medina. For ten years he was alongside his brother Hassan ibn Ali(As) in the political and social scenes. And after the martyrdom of Imam Hassan(As) in the 50th Hejra leadership reached to Imam Hussain (As). He has always been one of the strong critic and opponent to policies of Muawiya and his tyrannical and oppressive activities. He sends several letters for criticism of the Muawiya procedure in the killing of innocent and truth-seeking people.
One of the clauses of treaty between Imam Hassan (As) and Muawiya was that after Muawiya, caliphate has to reach to Imam Hassan (As) but Muawiya did not follow his treaty and his son, Yazid who was immoral and wine bibber was reached to caliphate after Muawiya dead in the 60th of Hejra.
However, Hussain ibn Ali(As) was one of the axis of Islamic unity and prominent figures from all the scientific and practical aspects and he was wisest and most pious person at that time. The Omayyad dynasty always feared of his influence, personality and popularity among the people. Yazid, in order to stabilize his unjust and oppressive monarchy, decided to send messages to celebrities and Islamic famous personalities and called them for allegiance (Beya’a). He wrote to Medina’s governor to receive allegiance from Imam Hussain (As) in favor of Yazid and if he refused kills him! But Imam Hussein(As) knew Yazid’s public corruption and incompetence, so abstain to the allegiance and in response to the letter he said,
It means; surely we belong to Allah and shall we return to Him, if a person like Yazid (that he was unbelieving and foul, even didn’t observe Islam’s appearance) rules Islamic government, it means ends of Islam.
Imam Hussain Ibn Ali (As) knew that when he didn’t recognize Yazid’s government, if he stays in Medina, he shall be killed, so forcibly he moved from Medina to Mecca nightly and secretly.
His arrival to Mecca abstaining the allegiance was spread between the people in Mecca and Medina and this news got into Kufa. Therefore, the Kufis invited Imam Hussain (As), who was in the Mecca, to come towards them and be the ruler of affairs, this invitation was from the chiefs and elders of Kufa. At first according to two bad and bitter experiences about people’s perfidy in Kufa that his honorable father ( Imam Ali (As) ) and his brother (Imam Hassan(As)) became martyr, Imam Hussain (As) rejected their request. But following the insistence and continuous letters received from Kufa, Imam sent his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to Kufa to determine authenticity and truth of their request.
In Kufa eighteen thousands of people made allegiance (Beya’a) with Muslim who was an envoy on behalf of Imam Hussain (As), therefore Muslim sent a letter to Imam that you can come to Kufa.
Imam Hussain (As) in the eight of Zel’hajja in year 60th of Hejra moved from Mecca to Iraq. Kufa treachery and Muslim ibn Aqeel martyr made unfavorable situation in Iraq. Imam Hussein(As) was on the way to Kufa with his family, children and
companions, before arriving to Kufa they were stopped in a land called “Karbala”, and they were surrounded by the army of
He didn’t surrender to Yazid’s army and at the end of the day called Ashoura (10th of Muharram year 61 of Hejra) on the land of Karbala, innocently, with great thirst for him and his family, barbarically and in the worst situation, along with his companions became martyr.
After that moment, Karbala has forever became center of inspiration, and Ashoura is known as the source of uprising and freedom and his martyr has been and will be a splendid cause for reviving the Holy Islam, and has and will awaken dormant consciences.
Salam to Imam Husayn(As) and Salam to his faithful family and companions
* it means:peace be up on him(p.b.u.h)
** it means:peace-health be up on him(AS)